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看图识题:2010年研究生入学考试英语大作文预测

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世界经济一体化?

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谁在主导世界经济

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谁来拯救地球?

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如何看待全球化的利与弊?

  Globalization and Internet

  The drawing vividly unfolds ............(Describe the picture描述图画)

  This phenomenon which this picture points out is one of numerous international phenomena to have become common and already attracted broad attention in the world in recent years. Globalization/Internet, in brief, makes the whole world a small village. Globalization/Internet offers extensive opportunities for every country in the world to develop their economy, improve their regime, enrich their culture, update their technology and so forth, but globalization/Internet is a two-edged sword: it can bring both benefit and harm. (Present state/situation现象描述+ /Meaning含义)

  中文:这幅图画指出的这个现象是近几年在世界上众多已经变得普遍并且已经引起了广泛关注的国际/世界现象之一。全球化/Internet,简言之,就是使整个世界变成一个小村子。全球化/Internet给予了这个世界上的每一个国家广泛的机会去发展它们的经济、改善它们的政体、丰富它们的文化、更新它们的技术等等,但全球化/Internet是一把两刃剑:既有利的一面,也有害的一面。

  We must first understand the nature of the problem. On the one hand, globalization/Internet offers extensive opportunities for every country in the world. On the other hand, One of the most controversial aspects of globalization/Internet is the global spread and dominance of American culture.

  中文:我们必须先要理解这个问题的本质。一方面,全球化/Internet为这个世界上的每一个国家提供了广阔的机会。另一方面,全球化/Internet最具有争议的其中一个方面是认为全球化就是美国文化的全球扩张和一统天下。

  I have some suggestions about dealing with this problem. First and foremost, Globalization/Internet can bring benefit. In the past twenty years, in the process of globalization and explosive development of the Internet, China has brought about rapid economic growth, sustained social progress and continuous betterment of people's living standard, so we should accept. Secondly, it can also bring harm. China has been experiencing the collapse of own traditional virtue in the process.

  In summary, I am deeply convinced that she, a nation which has civilization for 5,000 years, never loses any good things, physical, intellectual, or moral, till she finds a better substitute, and then the loss is a gain. (Suggestion+conclusion建议+结束语)

  中文:关于处理这个问题,我有一些建议。首要地,全球化/Internet能带来利益。在过去二十年,在全球化和Internet爆炸性的发展的过程中,中国已经产生了快速的经济增长、持续的社会进步和人们生活水平的不断改善,因此我们是应该接受的。其次,它也能带来伤害,在全球化和Internet爆炸性的发展的过程中,中国一直在经历着自己传统美德的瓦解。

  总之,我深信她,一个拥有5000年文明的民族,决不会丢掉任何好的东西,物质的、精神的或道德的,直到她找到一个更好的替代,那么到那时侯这种丢失就是一种获得。

  气候变暖(climate change):Recent decades we have witnessed an obvious rise in the global average temperature, which receives serious concerns across the world. Climate was a global issue and urged all countries to work together to address the issue. We should pursue economic growth, social development and environmental protection in a coordinated and balanced way, and develop models of production and consumption compatible with sustainable development. The relevant international community should increase financial input and information sharing and step up cooperation in research, development and innovation of technology. Adaptation to climate change is of the greatest concerns to developing countries. Developing countries should take some policy measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. As a developing country, China will shoulder its due international responsibilities and obligations. The Chinese government should give prominence to building a resource-conserving, environment-friendly society in its strategy of industrialization and modernization. Wen also called on other countries to join hands in dealing with climate change and promoting harmonious, clean and sustainable development in the world
Hackers' criminal activities are an international problem and China's network and information system have often been attacked by hackers from other countries.

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  精神空虚(the void spirit/ A lot of people who commit suicide are result from their void spirit. there is a spiritual void in China. Establish and implement the scientific view of development and push forward the coordinated development between socialist material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization.)

  传统美德(traditional virtue/ For decades, we have made more criticism than inheritance of our own traditional culture and more negative than confirmative. We should certainly learn from the West, but it is of equal importance that we retain virtues of our own. The Confucian Tradition(The Three Essential Confucian Values: I. Filial Piety II. Humaneness III. Respect for Ritual)

  铺张浪费(extravagance and waste/勤俭节约industry and economy/ The Chinese government, therefore, is promoting the concept of a thrifty society and frugal economy as a matter of urgency. Chinese laws and regulations concerning energy conservation currently in operation leave a lot to be desired.)

  传统伦理(The traditional ethical requirements /

  The traditional ethical requirements same with the basic principles:

  1. WHAT YOU DO NOT WISH DONE TO YOURSELF, DO NOT DO TO OTHERS.

  1) In its negative form:

  "Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire".

  "Do not do to others what you do not want others to do to you."(己所不欲,勿施于人).

  2) Although it is argued to be too much pushing one's own way to others, the positive form of the requirement is found in many classics:

  "Do to others what you wish others do to you" (欲人施诸己,亦施于人).

  "A benevolent man helps others to take their stand in that he himself wishes to take his stand, and gets others there in that he himself wishes to get there" (己欲立而立人,己欲达而达人).

  2. EVERY HUMAN BEING SHOULD BE TREATED HUMANLY.

  "To do humanly is to be human" (仁者人也)

  "'Benevolence' means loving your fellow men" (仁者爱人)

  Chinese tradition even advocates both the respect for human life and even the respect for all kinds of life, which seems to be very close to the idea of "Green Peace" and ecological criticism. These thoughts do not only seek for human peace but also for the harmony between human and nature and other creatures. And therefore, "the virtue of respecting for life" (生生之德) and "friend others and affiliate with all creatures"(民胞物与) is always taken as the great virtue in Confucian teachings and philosophy.

  There are many other traditional Chinese ideas related:

  1. In regard with the human relationship, "Harmony in diversity" or "harmony with diversity" (和而不同) is typically emphasized in Confucianism. Compared with "Baha'i", a new religious community who takes "Unity with diversity" as the main doctrine, the Confucian spirit of the harmonious co-existence of different cultures might be more relevant for the foundation of human existence and development.

  2. Confucius believes "honesty-sincerity is the Dao of Heaven" (诚者,天之道也) which is out of the control of human beings, and "to be honest and sincere is the Dao of human beings" which is the only thing we could do (诚之者,人之道也). In this case, a gentleman (君子)should "cultivate himself to be honest and sincere" in accordance with the Dao of Heaven, which is something upper or a more or less religious standard of honesty and sincerity. This might be clearer in the interpretation of Dao. In Chinese, I think either道 (way) or 德 (virtue) means "to walk your talk" originally, because both走 and 彳are symbols of walking carefully with small steps. In this case, "way" is formed in the walking and in virtue of moral practice "virtue" appears. Just as David Tracy noticed, the famous saying of Socrates "The unexamined life is not worth living" is in sharp contrast with a saying in a Buddhist scripture, "The un-lived life is not worth examining."

  3. So Dao is not only metaphysical but also physical; "honesty-sincerity" is above us and what we could do is nothing but learning to be honest and sincere; Dao could be justified in faith, as well as in behavior. I am not sure if it is "religion", but it is of course something like "Acts of Religion" (in terms of Derrida) or "Acts of Faith" (in terms of Rodney Stark). You may know that the sacred "Word" or "Wisdom" in the Gospel of John and other biblical scriptures is translated into "Dao" in this sense.

  4. For the same reason, traditional Chinese ethics ask for our "Consideration for others" (恕) and a spirit of tolerance: "great virtues have a huge capacity to contain things" (厚德载物), and "to tolerate is a sign of greatness" (有容乃大).

  5.And probably related to the consideration for others, traditional Chinese ethics place a great emphasis on family, viewing family as the foundation of society. Among the "five cardinal relationships" (emperor and his officials, fathers and kids, husbands and their wives, brothers and sisters, and friends), three of them are concerned with family relationship. It is even believed that "The relation between the officials and the emperor may find origin or archetype in the relation between husbands and wives, which even extends to the relation of heaven and the earth." (君子之道,造端乎夫妇。及其至也,察乎天地).

  6. And so, in Chinese traditional philosophy, "humanity is Benevolence" (博爱之谓仁), "filial piety" is the origin of human morality and sentiment (立爱自亲始). And, it is encouraged that "love your family so as to love others and all creatures" (亲亲而仁民,仁民而爱物), "cultivate moral character, and then you could cultivate your family, administrate the country, and bring peace all over the world" (修身、齐家、治国、平天下). When it is promoted to the realm that "honor the aged of other people as we honor our own, take care of the young of other people as we take care of our own" (老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼), we may naturally relate the traditional Chinese teachings with the famous prayer by St. Francis in the Medieval Europe: to be understood as to understand, to be loved as to love; it is in giving that we receive, it is in pardoning that we are pardoned, it is in dying that we are born to eternal life.

  Give your comments/Give your point of view(完全背诵):

  We must first understand the nature of the problem./in my view/in my opinion, On the one hand, It is true that many of China's current/present/existent/contemporary problems are the inevitable side effects of rapid economic development, which, of necessity, had to occur in an unbalanced way. On the other hand, without the economic development in/about the great number of developing countries or third world countries, like china, there will be no real development, prosperity and
Stability for the whole country. Notwithstanding/nonetheless/nevertheless/however/after all, in the long run, Economic development had to come first, but now a more complex agenda of social and political requirements must be integrated and optimized with pure economic growth. So we must promote the coordinated development of material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization to build China into a socialist country that is prosperous, powerful, democratic and culturally advanced. (Comments评论)

  中文:我们必须先要理解这个问题的本质。以我来看,一方面,目前中国存在的许多问题 都是由于别无选择的不平衡的经济快速发展造成的避免不了的负面影响。另一方面,对于大多数像中国这样的发展中国家或第三世界国家来讲,没有了经济的发展,将不存在整个国家的真正的发展、繁荣和稳定。不过,从长远来看,尽管,我们不得不先发展经济,但是如今过多的社会和政治需要必须同纯粹的经济增长结合起来使其最优化。因此,我们必须推动物质文明、政治文明和精神文明协调发展,把我国建设成为富强、民主、文明的社会主义国家。

  I have some/several suggestions about this problem. First and foremost/firstly/primarily/mainly/largely /mostly, China should learn from many developed countries/some western countries to dispose of/deal with/handle/solve/settle/iron out this social problem, including other social problems moral and non-moral, by means of/by/ state legislation, social policy and other relative regulations, especially/particularly because/since China has joined/become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 and taken place/held the 29th Olympic Games in 2008 as well as. Secondly, our government should clearly/definitely stipulate/establish the responsibilities and obligations of the relative/specific departments for the fulfillment/performance/implementation/execution. Thirdly, in the long run/from a long-term point of view, we should set up/found/constitute/institute a special education system/organization to promote and strengthen/encourage citizens' awareness of environmental protection, and hence improve their values/ideas/notions of consumption and morality. In addition, I recommend that children should start some education of Chinese traditional virtue as early as possible, such as thrift, honesty, affection, filial piety, courtesy, loyalty, humaneness and so on. (Suggestion/建议)

  中文:关于这个问题,我有一些建议。首要地,中国应该向众多发达国家学习,通过国家立法、社会政策和其他相关的规章制度来解决这个社会问题,也包括其他的道德的和非道德的社会问题,特别是因为中国已经在2001年加入了WTO,并且中国将在2008年举办第29界奥运会。其次,更重要的是我们的政府应该清晰地规定相关部门应履行的责任和义务。第三,从长远来看,我们应该设立一个专门的机构去宣传和加强公民对环境保护的意识,从而改变他们的观念。另外,我建议应该尽早地开始对孩子们进行中国传统美德的教育,诸如节俭、诚实、亲情、孝顺、谦恭有礼、忠诚、仁爱等等。

  In summary, to maintain a sustained, healthy, rapid and coordinated economic development, achieve socialist modernization and a society where man and nature live as friends, and build a harmonious and dynamic society with democracy, rule of law, justice, honesty and decency, stability and order, we will encounter no fewer difficulties and problems, but we are confident in our ability to overcome them and arrive at our set goal triumphantly. (Predicting预测+conclusion结束语)

  中文:总的来讲,为了维持一个可持续的、健康的、快速的和协调的经济发展,为了达到社会主义现代化和人和自然像朋友一样共生的社会,并且为了建造一个和谐的、有活力的、民主的、法治的、公正的、诚实庄重的、稳固有序的社会,我们肯定会遇到很多困难和问题。但是,我相信我们有能力克服它们,最终会胜利地达到我们的目标。

  In summary, China still has a long way to go in this problem and accordingly, great efforts are essential to make in order to solve it. But I am deeply convinced that she, a nation which has civilization for 5,000 years, never loses any good things, physical, intellectual, or moral, till she finds a better substitute, and then the loss is a gain. (Predicting预测+conclusion结束语)

  总之,中国在这个问题上仍然有一段长路要走,因此为了解决它,我们必须要做出巨大的努力。但是,我深信她,一个拥有5000年文明的民族,决不会丢掉任何好的东西,物质的、精神的或道德的,直到她找到一个更好的替代,那么到那时侯这种丢失就是一种获得。

  "青少年与网络"英语写作背诵文本

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青少年沉迷于网络游戏的比例越来越大

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谁来救救我的宝贝儿子?

  
互联网(Internet Age/ Computers and the Internet have changed our life enormously.

  There is no doubt about that. There are many advantages of the Internet that show you the importance of this new medium. What I want to say is that the Internet changed our life in a positive way.

  For many women, their own children are the main reason for staying at home. Now that they can do work on their computers at home, called teleworking, stay at home moms can still contribute to the finances of their families.

  Also, men can take this opportunity to work at home. What are the consequences, the advantages of teleworking? Sure, if you have a family, you can spend more time at home, probably you can spend more time with your children. Next is, that you can organize every day in the way you want to. Meetings at the company are reduced to a minimum. Teleworking is also an advantage for the owner of the company. Official studies substantiate that people who work at home are more motivated than their colleagues at the office.

  Especially in the business sector, knowledge is power. If you are the leader of a product, of a technology or just of an idea, you are able to make a lot of money.

  To get into this position, computers and Internet can play an essential part. Companies all over the world are online. If you want, it is no problem for you to exchange experiences... you will hear new things, you will see some facts from another point of view. For this reason you will find new solutions, new ways to go, so take this chance!

  The Internet is becoming more and more important for nearly everybody as it is one of the newest and most forward-looking media and surely "the" medium of the future.

  The first thing we have to do is make a differentiation concerning the usage of the terms computer and Internet.

  You can use the Internet at home for personal use or you can use it at work for professional usage. Let's talk about the first. Spending part of our day on the Internet is for many people quite normal. They use this kind of medium to get information about all kinds topics.

  Maybe some of them are interested in chatting, probably they are members of a community. Whatever you are looking for, you will find it. Even if you want to find very specific information, you will find it in a short time. Normally, you often have to send a letter, then you often have to wait for the reply, or you have to make some telephone calls and so on.

  In any case, the traditional way is the longer one. To put your own information on the Internet is also possible. Create your own homepage, tell other users about your interests, what you want, that's no problem at all.

  Most of us know software can cost a lot, if you buy it legally. Free software, free music is available on the Internet. You just have to download the program, the mp3-file or whatever and that's all there is to it.

  Why would you want to pay more than you need to?

  Special websites are created just to give you the newest programs, or to tell you where you can get it from.

  So, as you can see computers and Internet go together and have opened our world in many ways.

  青少年(young teenagers/young adult/young children The arrival of the Internet has speeded up globalization. Currently in China, many Internet cafes, especially those without licenses, admit juveniles in violation of relevant regulations and spread unhealthy information online. They have brought great harm to the mental health of teenagers and interfered with the school teaching, which has aroused strong reaction from the public. China has the largest population of young netizens in the world, but they turn to the Internet mostly to play games. The top three activities are online entertainment (39.9 percent), sports (18.3 percent) and watching television (12.3 percent). While blogs, or personal Web logs, have drawn a lot of media attention as a major focus of Internet use, it is clear that young people in particular use the Web for entertainment. Seeking leisure and entertainment has been the primary reason that drives many netizens online, the majority of whom are youngsters. So the issue of China's youth resorting to the Internet for entertainment deserves some attention from our society," The number of China's netizens reached 111 million in 2005, according to the 17th China Internet Development Statistics Report, released in January by the China Internet Network Information Center. And China's cyberspace is dominated by young people. Those between the age of 18 and 24 make up the largest proportion of Internet users, at 35.1 percent. Netizens under the age of 30 account for 71 percent of the total, the report shows. The survey shows that the top five Internet activities are reading news (65.9 percent), browsing Web pages (65.2 percent), playing online games (62.2 percent), downloading music (56.5 percent) and downloading entertainment content (53.5 percent). Internet addiction, mostly resulting from playing online games, is claimed to be the largest problem threatening the healthy growth and development of Chinese youth. Statistics from the 2005 China Youth Internet Addiction Research Report show that 13.2 percent of young Chinese netizens suffer from Internet addiction disorder, and another 13 percent have the tendency to become addicted to the Internet. He holds that online entertainment is nothing than Internet "opium," and he calls on young people to abandon their computer screens and get out Internet cafes to seek real entertainment in the real world.)

  中文:中国在世界上拥有最大数量的青年网民,但他们大多都是上网打游戏。

  Since the mid-1990s, there have been about 250,000 suicides every year in China, with suicide ranking as the chief cause of death among people between the ages of 15 and 34. A recent report of the World Health Organization says that over 90 per cent of the suicides in foreign countries suffer from mental problems. But in China 37 per cent of the suicides choose killing themselves as a way to escape daily pressure or disappointments. A recent case of suicide by a boy addicted to Internet games has increased the public's concern over the issue of Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD). Xiao Yi, a 13-year-old from Tianjin, committed suicide thinking that he would meet his friends from cyber space after he died. He jumped from the top of a 24-storey high-rise, Beijing Youth Daily reported yesterday. He left four notes before he committed suicide. In the letters Xiao, playing the role of a character from a computer game, said that he wanted to meet three friends who also played the game in paradise. He did not even mention his parents in the letters. In the hypothetical world created by such games, they become confident and gain satisfaction, which they cannot get in the real world, he said. Shen Qiyun, a professor at Beijing Normal University, who has studied the influence on teenagers of such games since 2001, said that currently 80 percent of computer games are imported from abroad, half of which are related to a "demon world," martial arts and violence, which are not healthy influences on teenagers. The country has strengthened its supervision and management of computer games. Increasing stress, loneliness and a lack of medical support for depression are thought to have contributed to an annual suicide toll that is estimated at 250,000 people a year. According to the China Daily, an additional 2.5 million to 3.5 million make unsuccessful attempts to kill themselves each year.(未完待续)

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饮可乐还是饮茶?

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《红色娘子军》舞动巴黎

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儒学在美国

  文明冲突(civilization conflict/ Huntington defines eight major civilizations: (1) Western - which includes Western Europe and North America; (2) Slavic-Orthodox; (3) Islamic - which includes three subdivisions: Arab, Turkic and Malay; (4) Latin American; (5) Hindu; (6) Confucian; (7) Japanese; and (8) African.

  Huntington says that "The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future." He continues, "Over the centuries ... differences among civilizations have generated the most prolonged and the most violent conflict" [2] - more so even than ideological conflict. The reason? - because differences between civilizations "... are far more fundamental than differences among political ideologies and political regimes ..."[3] And the evidence for Huntington's assertion is easily discernible in what's going on in the former Yugoslavia. Indeed, it's only in "civilization" (or religious) terms that any sense can be made of the alliance structures that have grown up as a result of the conflict: Germany, France and Austria (and, as a result, the E.C.) favor Slovenia and Croatia (which are Catholic and Western Christian); Russia and the "Eastern Slavs" favor Serbia (which is - like the rest of the Slavic states - Orthodox); and Turkey and Iran favor the Muslims of Bosnia (which are Islamic). Indeed, the Balkans have been a tinderbox of conflict for hundreds of years precisely because they lie at the convergence of three major civilizations (or religions) and the cultures which these religions undergird: Western Christianity (Slovenia, Croatia, etc.); Orthodox Christianity (Serbia, Bulgaria, Russia, etc.); and Islam (Turkey, Albania, etc.).

  I think, we're in a New Axial Age. The idea of Axial Age was proposed by German philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), defined as around 500 B.C. when great thinkers appeared almost simultaneous in Ancient Greece, Israel, India and China, contributing their original ideas to the problems concerning the existence of human being. Distinctive cultural traditions were then formed respectively by Socrates and Plato in Ancient Greece, Lai-zi and Confucius in China, Sakyamuni in India, and Jewish prophets in Israel, which, after more than two thousand years of progress, have become the principle part of human intellectual wealth. These local cultural traditions were independent in birth, without mutual influence. "Until today mankind has lived by what happened during the Axial Period, by what was thought and created during that period. In each new upward flight it returns in recollection to this period and is fired anew by it. Even since then it has been the case that recollections and reawakenings of the potentialities of the Axial Period - renaissances - afford a spiritual impetus." For example, the Europeans in Renaissance had recollected the origin of their culture, Ancient Greece, which had fired anew the European civilization and left its mark on global culture. Similarly, the Song and Ming Neo-Confucianism in China was stimulated by the impacts of Indian Buddhism; the Confucian thinkers, by "recollecting" Confucius and Mencius in pre-Qing Period, had promoted the ingenious Chinese philosophy to a new height. In a certain sense, the contemporary progress of global cultures might be a new leap on the basis of Axial Age. Has the contemporary human culture created, or will create, a New Axial Age then? -- Judged from certain evidences, it might be.

  If Chinese culture hopes to contribute to the "coexistence of civilizations" in contemporary human society, it must needs to know itself, which means a cultural self-consciousness. The so-called "cultural self-consciousness" is the serious self-reflection by certain people in certain cultural tradition on their own culture's origin, its history of formation, its characters (including both advantages and disadvantages) and its tendency of progress. The renewal of Chinese nation is on the eve. To achieve this goal, we must have a self-knowledge about Chinese culture, posit it on a proper place, and search with enthusiasm the genuine spirit of this culture with a long history, in order to present its essence to modern human society. Besides, we must reflect the disadvantages of our culture as well, to better the absorptions of other cultures' essences, and to re-interpret it in a modern way adapting to the general tendency of progress of modern society. Only after this retrospective reflection could our country march as vanguard in the progress of global culture, and create a brave new world together with other cultures.

  Confucianism and Taoism were principle schools of thinking in traditional Chinese culture, usually regarded as mutual complementary - of course, after Indian Buddhism was introduced into China, it also played an important role in Chinese society and culture. Now I'd like to discuss whether the Confucian and Taoist thinking could provide meaningful sources for the doctrine of "coexistence of civilizations".

  (1) The Confucian doctrine of Ren (仁: benevolence, virtue) is a resource of thinking with positive meaning for the "coexistence of civilizations".

  "The Way originates in Emotion" (道始于情), as prescribed in "Destiny is the resource of Human nature" (性自命出), manuscript in Guodian Bamboo Slips (《郭店竹简》). "The Way" here means "the Way of Human" (人道), i.e. the principles in dealing with human (or in anther word, social) relationships, which is different from "the Way of Heaven" (天道), i.e. the laws of nature or of universe. Human relationships are established on the basis of emotion, which is the starting point of Confucian doctrine of Ren. Once a disciple named Fan Chi asked Confucius: "What is Ren?" The answer was: "To love people." Where is the origin of this thought, "to love people"? In The Doctrine of the Mean a saying of Confucius was quoted as: "Ren is the characteristic element of humanity, and the great exercise of it is in loving relatives."[17] The spirit of Benevolence and Love (仁爱) is rooted in human nature, and to love one's relative is the most basic exercise of it. But the spirit of Ren goes far beyond this level. To quote Guodian Bamboo Slips: "To love and love deep, that is love; but to enlarge the love of one's father to the love of human being, that is Ren."[18] "The enlargement of filial piety is to love all the people below Heaven."[19] From these sayings we observe that the Confucian Doctrine of Ren demands to enlarge "the love of relatives" to "the benevolence on people", i.e. to "enlarge one's self-concern to the concern on others" (推己及人), to "treat with the reverence due to age the elders in your own family, so that the elders in the families of others shall be similarly treated; treat with the kindness due to youth the young in your own family, so that the young in the families of others shall be similarly treated"[20] - that is Ren. It is not easy to practice the doctrine of "enlarging one's self-concern to the concern on others", which requires a "practice of Ren" rooting in "the Way of Loyalty and Forgiveness" (忠恕之道), i.e. "never do to others as you do not wish done on yourself"[21], "wishing to be established himself, he seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others".[22] ("Loyalty is complete devotion of oneself; Forgiveness is the deduction of one's self-concern." 朱熹:《四书集注》).

  If Ren is to be enlarged to the whole society, it would be as what Confucius once said: "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. If a junzi (君子: gentleman, nobleman) can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will return to Ren (after his example). Is the practice of Ren from a man himself, or is it from others?"[23] "To subdue one's self" and "to return to propriety" are usually interpreted as paralleling teachings, but I don't think this is the best explanation of this doctrine. "To subdue one's self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue" actually means only the "returning to propriety" based on "subduing of one's self" could be regarded as Ren. Mr. Fei Xiaotong had his own interpretation about this doctrine: "Only after one has subdued one's self could one return to propriety. The return to propriety is prerequisite for one to enter the society and become a social man. Perhaps it is just on this point Western and Eastern civilizations have parted, that is, whether to expand or to subdue one's self."[24] I think Mr. Fei has made a proper remark. Zhu Xi also had an exegesis on this doctrine. "To subdue means to conquer," he said, "and the ‘self' means one's personal desires. To return means to restore, and the ‘propriety' means the laws and patterns of the Principle of Heaven." According to this exegesis, one should subdue one's personal desires to abide by proprieties and social criterions. Ren is one's natural virtues ("Love is born in nature."[25]); and propriety is exterior conventions to rule one's behavior, the function of which is to adjust social relationships so that people could live in harmony, as: "The most valuable function of propriety is harmony."[26] Only if one abides by proprieties and social criterions by free will, i.e. by an innate will to love people, could one fulfill the demands of Ren. Thus Confucius asked: "Is the practice of Ren from a man himself, or is it from others?" He made definite prescriptions to the relationship between Ren and propriety: "If a man be without Ren, what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man be without Ren, what has he to do with music?"[27] He who sets the rites or music without a heart of Benevolence and Love is hypocrite, and is in a purpose of cheat. It is in this sense that Confucius thought, if people would pursue Ren by freewill and practice the demanding of a heart of Benevolence and Love according to proprieties in everyday life, harmony and peace would be realized in society, -- "If a junzi can for one day subdue himself and return to propriety, all under heaven will return to Ren." I think this Confucian teaching is not totally meaningless for the political leaders of a state or the ruling classes in developed countries (United States in particular). "The politics of Ren" (仁政), or "the Way of virtuous emperor" (王道) instead of "the Way of hegemon" (霸道), is indispensable to "order the state" (治国) and to "harmonize all under Heaven" (平天下). If "the politics of Ren" or "the Way of virtuous emperor" is practiced, different cultures would be able to coexist and develop in peace; while "the Way of hegemon" will bring forth the "clash of civilizations", resulting in monoculturalism and cultural Hegemonism. If Confucian doctrine of Ren is applied in regulating intercultural relationships, clash or war of civilizations will be avoided, and the coexistence of civilizations achieved.

  Of course, even the Confucian doctrine of Ren is no miracle drug to solve all the problems about the existence of civilizations in contemporary society. However, as a set of moral self-regulations based on Ren, it would undoubtedly be of some practical significance to harmonize the coexistence of civilizations if practiced as a principle to regulate intercultural relationships.

  It is not easy to make different cultures get on in harmony and thus to make states and nations in different cultural traditions coexist in peace. Probably the Confucian doctrine of "Harmony in Diversity" (和而不同)[28] could provide us with an illuminating resource of thinking. According to Confucius, "The virtuous (junzi) get on in harmony without agreeing to each other; the base (xiaoren) agree with others without harmony."[29] Junzi, as intellectuals with moral discipline practicing the Way of Loyalty and Forgiveness, should try to get on in harmony in spite of their different opinions; but those with no morality or discipline always force others to accept their opinions, thus could not stay harmoniously. If this doctrine of "Harmony in Diversity" could be applied as a principle in dealing with intercultural relationships, it should be of very positive meaning to solve the conflicts among states or nations. It would be especially true in dealing with those disaccords and conflicts provoked by cultural differences (e.g. the differences on religious believes or values) among states or nations, that if we practice the teaching of "Harmony in Diversity" as principle to solve these conflicts.

  "Harmony" and "Sameness" are generally regarded as different concepts in traditional Chinese thinking. There was even "a debate on the difference between Harmony and Sameness". As a story recorded in Zuo-zhuan told us, once the Duke of Qi asked Yan-zi: "Is there only Ju get on with me in harmony?" The reply of Yan-zi was: "Ju merely expresses the same opinion with Your Highness, -- how could it be called harmony?" "Is there any difference between Harmony and Sameness?" asked the Duke. "They are quite different." replied Yan-zi, "Harmony is like well-cooked dish, you must concoct fish and meat with water, fire, vinegar, sauce, salt and plum, and then cook the dish with firewood. The cook harmonizes these flavors to make it moderate. If it is too light, then salt should be added; if too salty, then water. When Junzi dines with such a dish, his heart would be pacified. This is analogous to the relationship between the King and his magistrates... But Ju is different from it. When Your Highness say that something is right, he agrees; when Your Highness say the opposite, he agrees as well. It is as if to moderate water with water, -- who could tolerate to eat such a dish? Or as if a zither always plays the same tune, -- who could tolerate to enjoy such music? This is why Sameness differs from Harmony." (《左传•昭公二十年》) Another saying of Shibo (史伯) was recorded as: "In fact, only Harmony could activate the growth of lives, and Sameness would stop it on the contrary. Harmony is to moderate something with heterogeneous things, -- only in this way, the lives would flourish and find their belongings. If something is supplemented by homogeneous things, it could only be abandoned after exhausted. Thus the ancient virtuous emperors had concocted Earth with Metal, Wood, Water and Fire[30], to transform it into miscellaneous lives." [31](《国语•郑语》). From the quotes above we see that Harmony and Sameness are totally different concepts. Only under the presupposition of difference and correlation could things "be moderated with heterogeneity", and the diverse things progress together in harmony with each other. "To supplement something with homogeneity" is to aggregate the sameness, which would only suffocate the lives. The supreme ideal of traditional Chinese culture is that "miscellaneous lives are nourished together without harming each other; miscellaneous ways are practiced together without counteracting each other."[32] The "miscellaneous lives" and "miscellaneous ways" mean Diversity; the "without harming each other" and "without counteracting each other" mean Harmony. This doctrine would provide us with inexhaustible resource of thinking for the coexistence of diverse cultures.

  Now in Western countries, people of insight have already admitted the possibility of coexistence of civilizations, that the clash or war provoked by mere cultural differences should be avoided. They believe that different nations and states should be able to achieve common understanding through cultural exchanges, dialogues, and discussions. This would be a process from "Diversity" to mutual understanding. This mutual understanding is neither to extinct nor to assimilate the other, but to find a crossing point in the coordinate system and to propel the progress of both cultures, -- such is the function of "Harmony". It is just because of the differences of cultures that human civilization has become so colorful, and that the inter-supplementary and interactive structure has been formed gradually in the flowing river of human history. Cultural differences might lead to clashes or even wars, but not all differences are destined to cause clashes or wars. Especially in an era when sciences and technologies are rapidly developing, a massive war, if it happened, would destroy human being ourselves. Thus we must endeavor to pursue the harmonious coexistence through intercultural dialogues. Many scholars in China and abroad has realized now the importance of mutual understanding achieved by the dialogues bridging different cultures; for example, Habermas, who begins to emphasize the concepts of justice and solidarity. In my opinion, they are significant principles in dealing with international cultural relationships. Habermas' "Principle of Justice" could be understood as a right for every national culture to protect its independence and autonomy and to develop by free will; his "Principle of Solidarity" could be understood as an obligation to sympathize, understand and respect other national cultures. By incessant dialogues and communications, there will be one day, sooner or later, that a positive cycle of interactions between different national cultures be formed.[33] Another example is Gadamer, the German philosopher who left us only recently. He proposed that "understanding" should be extended to "universal dialogue". Because of this extension, the relationship between subject and object (as cognitive or grammatical concepts) is able to be transformed from inequality to equality; in another word, only when the dialogists are in equal status could they have meaningful dialogues and fruitful results. Gadarmer's consciousness of equality between subject and object and his theory of "cultural dialogue" are important ideas earnestly needed by our time,[34] illuminating enough for us to understand properly and thoroughly the cultural or national relationships between China and other nations. However, no matter Habermas' principles of justice and solidarity or Gadamer's theory of universal dialogue, their common presupposition should be the principle of "Diverse Harmony", since, only when nations and states in different cultural traditions could coexist in harmony through dialogues, could they acquire equal rights and obligations and could the "universal dialogue" between them be meaningful and fruitful. Thus, the Confucian principle of "Harmony in Diversity" based on the belief that "harmony is most valuable"[35] could be practiced as one of the basic principles in dealing with intercultural relationships. This principle, if practiced in dealing with relationships between states and nations in different cultural traditions, would be of positive meaning not only in eliminating the disaccords, conflicts and even wars, but as dynamics in propelling states and nations to progress through communications. It is just in this sense that Bertrand Russell said: "Contacts between different civilizations have often in the past proved to be landmarks in human progress."[36] The contemporary human society needs different cultures to develop their proper traditional characters through mutual learning and convergence, in order to realize the coexistence of civilizations on a new basis.

  (2) The Taoist Doctrine of the Way (tao) could provide significant resources of thinking to prevent "the clash of civilizations".

  If Confucius is a "man of virtue" (仁者), then Lao-zi is a "man of wisdom" (智者). The Way is the basic concept in Lao-zi's Tao Te Ching, while "the spontaneity and doing-nothing" (自然无为: to obey natural laws without offences) is the basic feature of the Way. "The spontaneity and doing-nothing is the Way of Heaven," said Wang Chong in his Lun Heng.[37] All kinds of conflicts in contemporary human society are undoubtedly caused by the greedy desires for power and wealth. Those great powers, in their pursuit of selfish gains and expansions of power, exploit the resources of undeveloped countries and practice a politics of great powers, which is the fundamental cause of global chaos. Lao-zi's doctrine of "spontaneity and doing-nothing" could be interpreted as to do nothing against people's will, which will render the society and the world peace. Lao-zi once quoted the saying of an ancient sage: "As I do nothing, the people will reform by themselves; since I like quiet, they will keep order by themselves; when I seek no trouble, the people will prosper by themselves; when I have no desire, they will live in austerity by themselves."[38] It means: the ruler with political powers should neither interfere his people (doing-nothing), nor disturb their everyday life (liking quiet), nor act against their will (seeking no trouble), nor exploit them insatiably (having no desire); thus, the people will reform by themselves, keep order by themselves, prosper by themselves, and live in austerity by themselves. If we give a modern interpretation to this teaching and renew it in contemporary world, it would not only render peace to a country but function significantly in eliminating the clash of civilizations. It could be interpreted as: in international politics, the more a country interferes another, the more chaotic the world will be; the more those great powers threaten others with military might, the more turbulent and disorderly the world will be; the more those great powers exploit the undeveloped countries under the pretext of international aids, the poorer those undeveloped countries will be; the more those developed countries desire and fight for the world dominance of wealth and power, the more immoral and terrorized the world will be. So I think, maybe the doctrine of "doing-nothing" is a medicine prescription for the leaders of the so-called "new empires". If they would accept this prescription, the world will have peace. However, the "new empires" always treat other states and nations with means of "doingness" (有为), such as interference, exploitation or military threat, which is undoubtedly determined by its greedy desires in the nature of all empires. According to Lao-zi, "No calamity's worse than to be discontented. Nor is there a sin more dreadful than coveting. He who knows to be contented, truly he'll always be so."[39] Aren't the "new empires" discontented and coveting? Lao-zi said again: "Is not the Way of Heaven much like a bow bent? The upper part has been disturbed, pressed down; the lower part is raised up from its place; the slack is taken up; the slender width is broader drawn. For thus the Way of Heaven cuts people down when they have had too much, and fills the bowls of those who are in want. But not the way of man will work like this: the people who have not enough are spoiled, for tribute to the rich and surfeited."[40] Why is human society in a state of turbulence and disorder now? Isn't it totally caused by human being themselves, especially those leaders of "new empires" acting against the Way of Heaven and losing the hearts of men, practicing a policy of spoiling those who have not enough for tribute to the rich and surfeited? Isn't it the root of disaccords, conflicts and wars in contemporary world? Thus we find that the "clash of civilizations" theory is closely related with the theory of "new empire" hiding in its back.

  Lao-zi strongly opposed wars for world peace. In Chapter 31, Tao Te Ching, he said: "Weapons at best are tools of bad omen, loathed by all. Thus those of the Way avoid them."[41] In wars there are always people dying, production destroyed and social orders broken, thus Lao-zi thinks it's nothing good, that people hate it, and statesmen of the Way should not engage the country in war to solve their problems. Again Lao-zi said: "To those who would help the ruler of men by means of the Way: let him not with his militant might try to conquer the world; this tactic will be revenged by Heaven. For where armies have marched, there do briers spring up; where great hosts are impressed, years of hunger and evil ensue."[42] This is generally true in histories of all nations. In our country, after each mass war, the population would reduce dramatically, earth disserted, production destroyed, and robbers and thieves infesting. The two world wars were ended in this way, and so is the present warfare in Middle East. "New empire" whatsoever, if its leaders enkindled wars every where, as consequence, it would surely slide into hot water, since the people in the conquered countries would not surrender, and would fight without fearing even death, as Lao-zi said: "The people do not fear at all to die; what's gained therefore by threatening them with death?"[43] And: "As for those who delight to do murder, it is certain they never can get from the world what they sought."[44] From history we see that those who had initiated the wars, though momentary successes they might get, would finally fail and be dishonored. Hitler was an example, and Japanese Militarism another. As a "man of wisdom", Lao-zi could observe the latent converse side with his wisdom, as he said: "On bad fortune the good fortune always leans; in good fortune the bad fortune always hides."[45] Now people in some countries are suffering, but it would be a necessary precondition prepared for their nation's renewal in future. Take an example from the recent hundred years of history of our country, it is just after being beaten times and times again that our people had finally waken up, and that today we dare say the Chinese are on the eve of their nation's great renewal. In my opinion, leaders of every country, especially of the new empires, should learn some teaching from the wisdom of Tao Te Ching, and realize that, in a long run of world history, the politics of great powers and Hegemonism have no future. Thus, I think the thinking of Lao-zi is very valuable to dismiss the theories of "clash of civilizations" and "new empire". We advocate the theory of "coexistence of civilizations" and agree with Lao-zi's thinking of "doing-nothing", in the expectation of a world of Great Equality, of peace, of general progress and of common wealth for human being. Of course, as the thinking of Lao-zi was born two thousand years ago, it could not solve all the problems that contemporary human society is confronted with (including the disaccords and conflicts among nations), but his wisdom should be of important value to illuminate our way. Our task is to rediscover and develop the essence of his thinking, to give it a modern interpretation, and to facilitate those researchers for edifications in the treasury of classical thinking.

  Differences in religious believes, values and ways of thinking could lead to conflicts among nations and states; and conflicts could lead to wars. However, are conflicts inevitable? Couldn't they be pacified without warring for cultural differences? We must needs to find resources of thinking in all national cultures advocating the coexistence of civilizations, in order to counteract those cultural elements possible to invite conflicts. As argued above, the Confucianism and Taoism in Chinese culture could provide significant resources of thinking to counteract the clash of civilizations and to bring forth the coexistence of civilizations. I believe the same kind of resources could be found in cultures of all nations and states too. When human civilization is on threshold of the 21st century, should we practice a theory of "clash of civilizations" to deal with the problems among nations and states, or a theory of "coexistence of civilizations" to guide human society on a road leading to peaceful coexistence instead? This is a question. We must ponder at it seriously and make a thoughtful choice. It would be the blessing of human being if it chooses not the clash but the coexistence of civilizations. The Book of History told us: "All the states under Heaven should be harmonized."[46] As many other nations, the Chinese is a great one with a long and brilliant tradition of history and culture, which is undoubtedly a most valuable treasure for mankind. We should make good use of this treasure, exert its proper contributions to the peaceful coexistence of human society, in order that harmony might befall on the world, pushing forward the global cultural exchanges.

  -- "Clash"or"Coexistence" of Civilizations? Tang Yijie From:(Beijing Forum) Translated by: YANG, Zhiyi

  中文:照我看,也许我们正处在一个新的轴心时代。德国哲学家雅斯贝尔斯曾经提出"轴心时代"的观念。他认为,在公元前五百年前后,在古希腊、以色列、印度和中国几乎同时出现了伟大的思想家,他们都对人类关切的问题提出了独到看法。古希腊有苏格拉底、柏拉图,中国有老子、孔子,印度有释迦牟尼,以色列有犹太教的先知们,形成了不同的文化传统。这些文化传统经过两千多年的发展已经成为人类文化的主要精神财富,而且这些地域的不同文化,原来都是独立发展出来的,并没有互相影响。"人类一直靠轴心时代所产生的思考和创造的一切而生存,每一次新的飞跃都回顾这一时期,并被它重新燃起火焰。自那以后,情况就是这样。轴心期潜力的苏醒和对轴心期潜力的回忆或曰复兴,总是提供了精神动力。"例如,欧洲的文艺复兴就是把目光投向其文化的源头古希腊,使欧洲文明重新燃起火焰,而对世界产生重大影响。中国的宋明理学(新儒学)在受到印度佛教文化冲击后,再次回到先秦的孔孟,而把中国本土哲学提高到一个新水平。在某种意义上说,当今世界多种文化的发展很可能是对二千多年前的轴心时代又一次新的飞跃。

中国文化能否为"文明的共存"作贡献

  化解冲突,需要我们从各个不同民族的文化中找出文明共存的资源。中国文化中的儒道两家可以为化解"文明的冲突"、实现"文明的共存"提供有意义的资源。

  中国文化要对当今人类社会的"文明的共存"作贡献,必须对自身文化有所了解,即对自身文化有一个"自觉"。

  所谓"文化自觉",是指一定文化传统的人群对其自身的文化来历、形成过程以及特点、发展趋势等能作出认真思考和反省。应该说,中华民族正处在民族复兴的前夜,因此我们必须对中国文化有个自觉的认识,必须给中国传统文化一个恰当的定位,认真发掘我们古老文化的真精神所在,以便把我们的优秀文化贡献给人类社会;认真反省我们自身文化的缺陷,以便我们更好地吸取其他国家和民族的文化精华,并在适应现化社会发展的总趋势下给中国文化以现代的诠释,这样,我们国家才能真正走在世界文化发展的前列,与其他各种文化一起共同创造美好新世界。

  中国传统文化中主要是儒道两家,而且是儒道互补。当然,印度佛教传入后,对中国社会和文化也发生着重要影响。现在我想讨论一下儒道思想理论能否对"文明的共存"提供有意义的资源。

  1、儒家的"仁学"为"文明的共存"提供了有积极意义的资源

  《郭店竹简•性自命出》中说:"道始于情"。这里的"道"说的是"人道",即人与人的关系的原则,或者说社会关系的原则,它和"天道"不同,"天道"是指自然界的运行规律或宇宙的运行法则。人与人的关系是从感情开始建立的,这正是孔子"仁学"的基本出发点。"仁爱"的精神是人自身所具有的,而爱自己的亲人最根本。但是"仁"的精神不止于此;爱自己的亲人,这只是爱,爱自己的父亲,再扩大到爱别人,这才叫作"仁"。对父母的孝顺要放大到爱天下的老百姓。"仁学"是要由"亲亲"扩大到"仁民",也就是说要"推己及人"。做到"推己及人"并不容易,必须把"己所不欲,勿施于人","己欲立而立人,己欲达而达人"的"忠恕之道"作为"为仁"的准则。如果要把"仁"推广到整个社会,这就是孔子说的:"克己复礼曰仁,一日克己复礼,天下归仁焉。"自古以来把"克己"和"复礼"解释为两个平行的方面,我认为这不是对"克己复礼"好的解释。所谓"克己复礼曰仁"是说,只有在"克己"基础上的"复礼"才叫作"仁"。费孝通先生对此也有一解释:"克己才能复礼,复礼是取得进入社会、成为一个社会人的必要条件。扬己和克己也许正是东西方文化的差别的一个关键。"这是很有道理的。"仁"是人自身内在的品德,"礼"是规范人的行为的外在礼仪制度,调节人与人之间的关系使之和谐相处。要人们遵守礼仪制度必须是自觉的,出乎内在的"爱人"之心,才符合"仁"的要求。所以孔子认为,有了追求"仁"的自觉要求,并把这种"仁爱之心"按照一定规范实现于日常社会之中,社会就会和谐安宁了。孔子和儒家的这套思想,对于一个国家的"治国"者,对于现在世界上那些发达国家的统治集团,不能说是没有意义的。如果把孔子的"仁学"理论用于处理不同文明之间的关系,那么在不同文明之间就不会引起冲突以至于战争,从而实现"文明的共存"。

  孔子的"仁学"理论虽然不能解决当今人类社会存在的"文化的共存"的全部问题,但它作为一种建立在以"仁"为本之上的"律己"的道德要求,作为调节不同文化之间关系的一条准则,使不同文化得以和谐相处,无疑仍有一定的现实意义。

  要使不同文化之间和谐相处并不容易,孔子提倡的"和而不同"可以提供极有意义的资源。孔子认为,以"和为贵"而行"忠恕之道"的有道德有学问的君子应该做到在不同中求得和谐相处;而不讲道德没有学问的人往往强迫别人接受他的主张而不能和谐相处。如果把"和而不同"用作处理不同文化之间关系的原则,对于解决当今不同国家与民族之间的纷争应有非常积极的意义。

  现在西方国家的有识之士都认识到不同文明之间应能共存。不同民族和国家应该通过文化的交往与对话,在对话(商谈)和讨论中取得某种"共识",这是由"不同"到某种意义上的相互"认同"的过程。这种相互"认同"不是一方消灭一方,也不是一方"同化"一方,而是在两种不同文化中寻找交汇点,并在此基础上推动双方文化的发展,这正是"和"的作用。其中,德国思想家哈贝马斯提出了"正义"和"团结"的观念;我认为,把它们作为处理不同民族文化之间关系的原则,是有意义的。哈贝马斯的"正义原则"可理解为,要保障每一种民族文化独立自主、按照其民族的意愿发展的权利;"团结原则"可理解为,要求对其他民族文化有同情理解和尊重的义务。不断通过对话和交往等途径,总可以在不同民族文化间形成互动中的良性循环。不久前去世的德国哲学家伽达默尔提出,应把"理解"扩展到"广义对话"层面,主体与对象(主观与客观或主与宾)才得以从不平等地位过渡到平等地位;反过来说,只有对话双方处于平等地位,对话才可能真正进行并顺利完成。可以说,伽达默尔所持的主体--对象平等意识和文化对话论,正是我们这个时代所需要的重要理念。这种理念,对我们正确深入地理解中外文化、民族关系等,具有重要启示。但是,无论是"正义"和"团结"原则,还是"广义对话论",都要以承认"和而不同"原则为前提,这样,不同文化传统的民族与国家才能获得平等权利和义务。儒家"和而不同"原则应成为处理不同文化之间的一条基本原则。罗素说:"不同文明之间的交流过去已经多次证明是人类文明发展的里程碑。"当今人类社会,需要的正是不同文化在相互吸收和融合中发展不同的文化传统的特色,以期达到在新的基础上的"文化的共存"。

  2、道家的"道论"能为防止"文明的冲突"提供有意义的资源

  如果说孔子是一位"仁者",那么老子则是一位"智者"。《道德经》中,"道"是基本概念,而"自然无为"(顺应自然规律,不做违背自然规律的事)是"道"的基本特性。今日人类社会之所以存在种种纷争,无疑是由于贪婪追求权力和金钱引起的。那些强国为了私利,扩张势力,掠夺弱国的资源,实行强权政治,正是世界混乱无序的根源。帝国霸权正是"文明冲突"的根源。老子说:古代圣人曾经说过:"我无为而民自化,我好静而民自正,我无事而民自富,我无欲而民自朴。"意思是说:掌握权力的统治者不应该对老百姓作过多的干涉(无为),不要扰乱老百姓的正常生活(好静),不要作违背老百姓意愿的事(无事),不要贪得无厌地盘剥老百姓(无欲),这样老百姓就会自己教化自己(自化),自己走上正轨(自正),自己富足起来(自富),自己生活朴素。如果对这段话给以现代诠释,那就不仅可以使一个国家内部安宁,而且对消除不同文明之间的冲突无疑有重要意义。为什么今日世界人类社会处在一种十分混乱不安定的状态?这完全是由人自身造成的,特别是那些"新帝国"的领导者造成的,他们违背了"天道",失去了"人心",奉行的是"损不足以奉有余";"文明的冲突"论与其背后的"新帝国"论有着密切联系。

  为了社会的和平和安宁,老子强烈地反对战争。《道德经》第三十一章说:"夫兵者,不祥之器,物或恶之,故有道者不处。"(打仗用兵是不吉祥的东西,大家都厌恶它,所以有道德的人不使用它。)战争总要死人,总要破坏生产,使社会秩序破坏。老子又说:"以道佐人主者,不以兵强天下,其事好还。师之所处,荆棘生焉,大军之后,必有凶年。"(我们应该用道德来告诫领导者,不要用兵力逞强于天下。用兵这件事一定会得到报应。军队所到的地方,就会破坏一切,使荆棘丛生。大战之后,一定会是荒年。)反观各国历史,无不如此。从历史上看,发动战争的人虽然一时可以得逞,但最终总要失败。世界各国应从《道德经》中吸取智慧,认识到强权政治、霸权主义从长期的世界历史发展看是没有前途的。老子思想对消解"文明的冲突"论、新"帝国论"是十分有价值的。当然,两千多年前的老子思想不可能全然解决当今人类社会的问题(包括各民族之间的矛盾、冲突等问题),但是他的智慧之光对我们应有重要启示。我们应该做的,是如何发掘和发挥他的思想精华并给以现代诠释,使之有利于人们得到某些宝贵启示。

  在不同民族和国家之间,由于宗教信仰的不同、价值观念的不同、思维方式的不同可能引起冲突,甚至可能由冲突导致战争。但是,是否必然要引起冲突,能不能化解冲突、使之不因文化的不同而导致战争,这就需要我们从各个不同民族的文化中找出文明共存的资源。如上所述,中国文化中的儒道两家可以为化解"文明的冲突"、实现"文明的共存"提供有意义的资源。我相信,在各民族、各国家的文化中同样有可以化解"文明的冲突"并实现"文明的共存"的有价值的资源。是用"文明冲突论"来处理各民族、国家间的问题,还是用"文明共存论"来引导人类社会走向和平共处,这是当前必须认真考虑和慎重选择的问题。反对"文明冲突"论,倡导"文明共存"论,无疑是人类社会的福祉。《尚书•尧典》说:"协和万邦"。中华民族和其他许多民族一样是伟大的民族,有很长灿烂光辉的历史文化传统,对人类社会是极为宝贵的财富。我们对这笔财富应善加利用,使之为实现不同文化之间的协调共存,推进世界各种文化之间的交流,做出应有的贡献。

  --节选自《"文明的冲突"与"文明的共存"》作者 汤一介教授

  People of different civilizations, such as Islamic civilization, Christian civilization or Chinese civilization, have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy. These differences are the product of centuries. They will not soon disappear. They are far more fundamental than differences among political ideologies and political regimes.

  -- Harvard University's Samuel Huntington

  中文:不同文明的人们,诸如伊斯兰文明、基督教文明或中国文明,有着不同的思维对于神和人的关系、个人和团体的关系、公民和国家的关系、父母和孩子的关系、丈夫和妻子的关系,同样,对于权利和责任、自由和权威、平等和阶层两者相对的重要性有着不同的看法。这些不同是很多世纪的产物。他们将不会那么快就消失掉的。它们远比政治的意识形态和政治的组织形式之间的不同根本的多。

2010年考研英语写作预测 (五)

  一、历年真题定性:

  生活在城市还是乡村 (1991年考题类型→"个人偏好")

  父母和孩子之间缺乏沟通 (1992年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  电视广告 (1993年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  结交朋友 (1994年考题类型→"个人偏好")

  希望工程 (1995年考题类型→"有形社会问题")

  健康的身体 (1996年考题类型→"个人偏好")

  世界性的吸烟问题 (1997年考题类型→"有形社会问题")

  不必要的承诺 (1998年考题类型→"有形社会问题")

  生态失衡 (1999年考题类型→"有形社会问题")

  商业捕鱼 (2000年考题类型→"有形社会问题")

  奉献爱心 (2001年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  文化交流 (2002年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  温室里的花朵经不起风吹雨打 (2003年考题类型→"人生哲理")

  Section Ⅳ wrinting (节选试题)

  66 Directions

  Study the following set of drawings carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1)describe the set of drawing ,interpret it meaning

  2)point out its implications in our life

  you should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2 (20 points)

1.jpg

  终点又是新起点 (2004年考题类型→"人生哲理")

  Secton Ⅳ Writing (节选试题)

  66 Directions:

  Study the following drawing carfully and write an essay in which you should

  1) describe the drawing

  2) interpret its meaning ,and

  3) support your view with examples

  You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2

2.jpg

  养老问题 (2005年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  Section Ⅳwriting (节选试题)

  Part A

  51 Direction:

  Two ,months ago you not got a job as an editor for the magazine Designs and Fashion . But now you find that the work is not what you expected .You decide to quit .write a letter to you boss ,Mr.Wang , telling him your decision ,stating your reson(s),and making an apology .

  Write your letter with no less than 100 words .Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.Do not sign your own at the letter ;use "Li Ming" instead .You do not need to write the address.(10 points)

  Part B

  52 Directions :

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing .in your essay ,you should first dedcribe the drawing ,then inerpret its meaning ,and give your comment on it .

  青少年盲目崇拜 (2006年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  Section Ⅲ writing (节选试题)

  Part A

  51 Directions :

  You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area . Write a letter to the department concerned ,asking them to help find a candidate . you should specify what kind of child you want to help and how you will carry oyt your plan .

  Write your leeter in no less than 100 words .write it neatly on

  Part B

  52 Directions :

  Study the following photos carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1) describe the photos briefly .

  2) interpret the social phenomenon reflected by them ,and

  3) give your point of view .

  you should write 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2(20points)

3.jpg

  自信 (2007年考题类型→"人生哲理")

  Section 3 writing (节选试题)

  Part A

  51 Directions:

  Write a letter to you university library ,making suggestions for improving its service.

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter .use "Li Ming "instead .

  Do not write the address .(10 points)

  Part B

  52 Direction :

  Write an essay of 160-200 words on the following drawing .in your essay ,you should

  1)describe the drawing briefly ,

  2) explain its intended meaning ,and then

  3)Support your view write an example /examples

  自信 (2007年考题类型→"人生哲理")

  Section 3 writing (节选试题)

  Part A

  51 Directions:

  Write a letter to you university library ,making suggestions for improving its service.

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter .use "Li Ming "instead .

  Do not write the address .(10 points)

  Part B

  52 Direction :

  Write an essay of 160-200 words on the following drawing .in your essay ,you should

  1)describe the drawing briefly ,

  2) explain its intended meaning ,and then

  3)Support your view write an example /examples

5.jpg

  合作 (2008年考题类型→"人生哲理")

  Sections 3 writing (节选试题)

  Part a

  51. derection:

  You have just come back from Canada and found a music CD in your luggage that you forgot to return to Bob ,your landlord there .write him a letter to

  1)make an apology ,and

  2)suggest a solution

  you should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter .Use " Li Ming " instead .

  Do not write the address .(10 points )

  Part b

  52 Direction :

  Write an essay of 160-200 words on the following drawing .in your essay ,you should

  1)describe the drawing briefly ,

  2)explain its intended meaning , and then

6.jpg

  网络 (2009年考题类型→"无形社会问题")

  二、历年真题写作题型定义:1)个人偏好。个人偏好指的是利弊参半的问题,如"生活在农村还是城市"各有利弊,利弊要因每个人的不同偏好而判定;2)有形社会问题。有形社会问题指的是只有依靠政府才能够解决的一些社会问题,如生态失衡、假冒伪劣产品泛滥等社会问题;3)无形社会问题。无形社会问题指的是通过政府或法律手段无法很好解决的一些社会问题,如养老问题、青少年盲目崇拜等社会问题;4)人生哲理。人生哲理指的是不同的人生观和价值观,如逆境出人才、自强不息、勇于拼搏等话题。

  三、2010年考研英语写作题型预测:通过以上对历年写作真题的分析,我们可以看出考研写作的题型已经相当固定。迦思佑能够连续7年命中考研英语写作的秘密所在就在于完全掌握了考研英语写作的命题思路与逻辑。"个人偏好"题型截止1996年总共考了三次,接下来的11年再也没考过。"无形社会问题"题型考了7次。"有形社会问题"题型考了5次。从2003年开始考"人生哲理"题型,截止2007年总共考了4次,可以说是新题型。综上所述,2010年的写作应该是围绕着以上四种题型出题。

  人与自然(实物)关系类

  【范文】

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain its intended meaning, and then

  3) state your point of view。

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

7.jpg

地球上最后的资源

  It is a very thought-provoking cartoon, in which numerous people are crowding on earth. The drawing aims to alarm us that resources on earth are far from enough to sustain our exploding population。

  It goes without saying that this message is very true. The 20th century has not only witnessed a huge hike in population, but also the emergence of crises resulting from fighting for restricted resources. Take crude oil for example, it is so immensely consumed in daily life and industrial production that its role is fundamental in today’s global economic and political stage. People of different nations even initiate wars to obtain more oil fields, an activity which can be best exemplified by the complicated scenario in the Middle East. Other examples include more disputes over the sharing of water resources, as well as the lack of food and other necessities in most African countries。

  Indeed, a large population with limited resources casts a shadow on mankind’s future existence in this planet. Therefore, it is prime time that we took positive steps with the strength of all human beings to hold back this grim tendency. Evidently, sustainable development needs a population with a reasonable exploitation of natural resources. (200 words)

  在这幅发人深思的图中我们可以看到地球上面簇拥着无数的人。这幅漫画意在给我们敲响警钟,即地球上的资源已经无法供应呈爆炸式增长的人口了。

  毫无疑问,这里传递的信息是非常真实的。过去的20世纪不仅见证了人口数量的迅速增长,同时因为争夺有限资源而导致的危机也开始浮现。以原油为例,由于其在人们的日常生活和工业生产中的巨大消耗量,石油在当今的全球经济和政治舞台中扮演了重要角色。来自不同国家由于人们为了争夺油田不惜开战,其最好的例子就是中东地区复杂的局势。其他的例子包括由于水资源短缺导致的纷争,以及大多数非洲国家的食品和其他生活必需品的匮乏而引起的骚乱。

  实际上,剧增的人口和地球有限的资源之间的反差给人类未来的生存投上了阴影。因此,该是我们采取有效措施,集中全人类的力量来阻止这种严峻的趋势发展的时候了。显而易见,提倡可持续发展意味着合理的人口数量和对自然资源的合理开发。

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